# Avoiding widows and orphans in LaTeX documents

To avoid paragraphs ending with a single line on the following page often looks a bit ugly. Especially when they are then followed by figures or tables. Single lines of a page-overlapping paragraph are called “widows” and “orphans”. How can we tell TeX to avoid those? With the following code, you tell TeX that it should put a penalty on these types of layouts. Setting this penalty very high (typically 10.000) avoids widows and orphans almost entirely. Just add the following code in the preamble of your document.

`\clubpenalty = 10000\widowpenalty = 10000 \displaywidowpenalty = 10000`

# Formatting text in Stata figures

This is not really new, but still comes in handy when formatting text in Stata figures. With a relatively simple code, you can make write text bold, in italics, and even greek letters

This special text is entered in curly brackets “{…}”:

• Greek letters: {&alpha}, {&beta}, etc.
• Text in italics: {it:Text in italics}
• Text in bold: {bf: Text in bold}
• Operators: {&le} (less than or equal to), {&ne} (unequal)
• Subscripts and superscripts: e.g., write y{sup:2}{sup:ij}