# Avoiding widows and orphans in LaTeX documents

To avoid paragraphs ending with a single line on the following page often looks a bit ugly. Especially when they are then followed by figures or tables. Single lines of a page-overlapping paragraph are called “widows” and “orphans”. How can we tell TeX to avoid those? With the following code, you tell TeX that it should put a penalty on these types of layouts. Setting this penalty very high (typically 10.000) avoids widows and orphans almost entirely. Just add the following code in the preamble of your document.

`\clubpenalty = 10000\widowpenalty = 10000 \displaywidowpenalty = 10000`